Muck Dynasty

It’s no surprise that white trash patriarch Phil Robertson (he calls himself white trash, people; don’t blame me), of A&E’s popular (reportedly 14 million bleeping people watch the show each week) Duck Dynasty family, has revealed himself to be breathtakingly ignorant about gays and about black history. After all, it’s not all that uncommon for religious zealots to hate the gay and to think blacks were as happy as larks picking cotton for The Man, uh, The White Man.

And it’s not a bit surprising that so many conservatives, like the cartoonish Sarah Palin, have openly rushed to his side to offer their support of his bigotry and ignorance. In fact, that kind of bigotry and ignorance thrives in the GOP. Bigotry and ignorance is the life blood of the party these days.

But I was surprised that someone I know (locally) to be a staunch Democrat rushed to the defense of the white trash patriarch (again, don’t blame me for phrasing it that way; I’m just honoring his own description). Why, you might ask, would a fiercely partisan Democrat be so eager to endorse the bigotry and ignorance of Mr. Robertson? Why would he be so eager to post this picture on Facebook:

I’ll let him tell you:

I love the way the man speaks openly about his love for Jesus.

Yep. It turns out that loving Jesus, or more accurately, saying publicly you love Jesus, covers a multitude of sins, including, presumably, the sin of bigotry and, in the case of Phil Robertson, the sin of ignorance—the man has a Master’s degree in (I’m gasping for air here) education, for Allah’s sake. There is no way you can go through that much schooling and not know at least a little science about sexuality and a little history about Jim Crow and the oppression of black people. And as many have pointed out, the man is old enough to have lived through some of the horrendous events in the South, when blacks were suffering and dying at the hands of white racists, but who, according to Phil Robertson, were “singing and happy” the whole time.

But forget Phil Robertson. Forget the forgettable Duck Dynasty. We have a real problem in this country when prominent members of a major political party essentially endorse bigotry and ignorance—yes, I’ve used those terms a lot and I ain’t finished—like they were endorsing apple pie and Chevrolet. And there is an even bigger problem when just because a man says publicly that he loves Jesus, all is forgiven, or, worse, accepted. We have, thankfully, got past the point where white Jesus-lovers can publicly persecute black Jesus-lovers in America. But we have a long way to go before Jesus-lovers of every color will stop persecuting Jesus-loving and non-Jesus-loving  gay people. And that is where I want to part ways with a person I think is one of the smartest guys, one of the most astute liberals, on television, MSNBC’s Chris Hayes.

On his Thursday show, discussing Phil Robertson’s bigotry and ignorance, Chris Hayes condemned Robertson’s remarks but said he agreed with those, like Sarah Palin, who object to A&E suspending the bigot from his popular cable TV show. Because Robertson represents a large segment of the population, the argument goes, he should be able to spout his nonsense with impunity because such nonsense is not considered nonsense among people who find the Robertsons’ entertaining and—yikes!—inspiring.

Bulldook. A&E certainly has the right to keep employing Mr. Robertson and his Republican-loving family and to keep producing their unreal reality show. No one disputes that. But apparently A&E believes it has at least some civic responsibility not to promote extremism, particularly extremism based on such atomic bigotry and ignorance. And the network is right not to do so. The A&E executives ought to be applauded, especially by liberals, for their action instead of condemned for it. There is no First Amendment case here. No one has an unfettered right to speak, whether it be foolishness or non-foolishness, on a TV network.

Imagine if Phil Robertson, thought, and said so out loud, that during WWII, as far as he knew, Jews were really happy and never sang the blues. “Holocuast? I never saw no stinkin’ Holocaust!”  Imagine if one of the Duck Dynasty cast members thought, and said so out loud, that homosexuality will lead to human beings banging beasts! Wait! We don’t have to imagine it. Ol’ Phil actually said it:

Start with homosexual behavior and just morph out from there. Bestiality, sleeping around with this woman and that woman and that woman and those men.

I’m worried about this country. I’m worried about it not because Phil Robertson is a dangerous man. He isn’t. He’s just someone to be pitied, in terms of his social IQ. I’m worried about the country because it is still pregnant with the kind of bigotry and ignorance that Phil Robertson represents. And as we get deeper into the 21st-century, we can’t afford to indulge, or entertain ourselves with, such nonsense. Religion is one thing. Bigotry and ignorance (last time) is another. And it is about time people learn the difference, even if it means there may be no more Duck Dynasty.

No ENDA In Sight, Thanks To The Roy Blunts In Congress

If you were searching for something online on Monday, you no doubt noticed this Google Doodle:

google doodle and Shakuntala Devi

November 4 was the birthday of Shakuntala Devi. She was an arithmetically-gifted child prodigy who could do seemingly impossible calculations in her head. Initially that was her claim to fame. But she was also celebrated later for writing an important book on homosexuality in 1977, The World of Homosexuals, which Wikipedia calls “the first study of homosexuality in India.” Here’s more from the site:

The book, considered “pioneering”, features interviews with two young Indian homosexual men, a male couple in Canada seeking legal marriage, a temple priest who explains his views on homosexuality, and a review of the existing literature on homosexuality. It ends with a call for decriminalising homosexuality, and “full and complete acceptance—not tolerance and not sympathy”.

Long before anyone had ever heard of Shakuntala Devi, there was Sigmund Freud, who also had an interest in homosexuality, albeit in a time when it was poorly understood. The Skeptic’s Dictionary plainly states that Sigmund Freud’s personal invention, known as psychoanalysis, is,

the granddaddy of all pseudoscientific psychotherapies, second only to Scientology as the champion purveyor of false and misleading claims about the mind, mental health, and mental illness.

An example of such nonsense, as the Dictionary points out, is how Freud viewed schizophrenia:

Freud thought he understood the nature of schizophrenia. It is not a brain disorder, but a disturbance in the unconscious caused by unresolved feelings of homosexuality. 

Fortunately, real science has advanced beyond such mumbo jumbo. Schizophrenia is no longer “a disturbance” related to feelings of homosexuality, unresolved or otherwise. But there are folks among us who still have strange views of homosexuality itself, notwithstanding Shakuntala Devi’s call for “full and complete acceptance” of it a generation ago.

And many of those folks are in Congress.

By now you have heard that a so-called gay rights bill in the United States Senate, officially known as the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA), has survived a procedural vote by a margin of 61-30. All Democrats (except for Claire McCaskill, who had attended a funeral for former Missouri congressman Ike Skelton in Lexington, Mo., and missed the vote) voted to advance the bill and a mere seven Republicans (minus a likely “yes” vote from an absent Lisa Murkowski of Alaska) voted with them.

The bill, as ABC News reported, “would ban discrimination in the workplace based on sexual orientation and gender identity.” The assumption behind the bill, of course, is to apply Shakuntala Devi’s “full and complete acceptance” of one’s sexual orientation and gender identity to the American workplace.

Missouri’s other senator, Roy Blunt, did not vote and I don’t know why or where he was. But I do know that in 2007 a right-wing Christian website called “Americans for Truth About Homosexuality” featured Blunt, who was not my senator but my congressman at the time, specifically because of his opposition to ENDA:

Rep. Roy Blunt: Democratic Majority’s ENDA Bill Takes Dead Aim at Religious Freedom

blunt and ENDAIn a piece published by the reactionary website Human Events and appearing almost six years ago to the day, Blunt explained the basis of his objection to ENDA. You can go there and read it for yourself, but I will here summarize his objections:

1. Ensuring that there is no employment discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity represents a threat to the practice of Bible- and Quran-believing religion.

2. Employees in Christian or Muslim businesses would be forced to “choose” between their faith and their pocketbooks out of fear of litigation.

3. The whole ENDA exercise is a “whim”—defined by the Free Dictionary as an “arbitrary thought or impulse”—of Congress.

4. Your “freedom to practice religion” could be “greatly impinged” by some judge “sitting on a bench” in a particular state on a given day.

To condense Blunt’s objections into one sentence: Homosexuals have no rights which a conservative Christian (or Muslim) is bound to respect. 

All of this, of course, at least for Blunt and his Bible-believing constituency, stems from the Bible’s rather hostile view of homosexuals. You know, like this from Leviticus:

If a man also lie with mankind, as he lieth with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination: they shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them.

So, you can see that what Roy Blunt was protecting in 2007 (and presumably today) in terms of his opposition to ENDA, is the Iron Age beliefs of people who thought (and some who still think) that there is something so seriously wrong with homosexuals that executing them, if they practice their “sin,” is necessary.

Where is Sigmund Freud when you need him? His views are quite civilized, at least compared to the view Blunt is defending.

And by the way, Rand Paul, the duel-loving serial plagiarizer and faux-libertarian superstar, a man who in theory is in favor of “more individual freedom,” voted in favor of honoring Iron Age notions of sexuality and the bigotry that goes with them, allowing the Bible- and Quran-thumpers to keep discriminating against homosexuals, or perceived homosexuals, in the workplace. He too, like Roy Blunt, apparently believes that such folks have no rights which religious zealots are bound to respect, especially religious zealots who happen to own businesses.

Below is a video of Roy Blunt arguing against ENDA in 2007 in the House. While it is unlikely that ENDA will ever become law, so long as one side of the Capitol remains under theocratic control, you will, no doubt, hear arguments similar to Blunt’s should this matter ever get debated in the teavangelical-dominated House of Boehner:

Foreskin Hunting

Sometimes, as we fight the culture war battles, it seems as if we are wasting our time, at least those of us who are fighting Iron Age thinking developed from biblical precepts. Here is just one of those precepts:

If a man has sexual relations with a man as one does with a woman, both of them have done what is detestable. They are to be put to death; their blood will be on their own heads. — Leviticus 20:13

Lest ye say that is just the Old Testament and we are living under the New, Paul the Apostle called homosexuality “shameful” and said such folks who practice it were due a “penalty for their error,” which, of course, means “death.”

Today, twenty centuries later, things are finally—finally—starting to change:

As you can see from the graphic, things are changing rapidly among Democrats, whose party may include in its platform a marriage equality plank. But things are not so rapidly changing among Republicans, whose ranks include a horde of Iron Age thinkers called evangelicals, folks who enthusiastically endorse the Bible’s view of homosexuality expressed in Leviticus and by Paul, if not the penalty associated with it. These days even the zealots don’t believe gay bashing includes the electric chair.

My point, though, is that it matters greatly what message gets transmitted by culture-war infantrymen, whose job it is to engage bigotry and senseless discrimination, especially that brand brought to us by ancient texts, the kind that approved of murderous deeds like David perpetrated in the Old Testament, especially when he had a hankering to become part of the king’s family:

David took his men with him and went out and killed two hundred Philistines and brought back their foreskins. They counted out the full number to the king so that David might become the king’s son-in-law. Then Saul gave him his daughter Michal in marriage.

You see, when conservatives in either party tell us the Bible has the last word on the propriety of homosexuality, we have to object and object loudly, we have to engage in that battle. We have to win that fight. Because the same ancient culture that produced a book that pronounced God’s wrath on gay people also had no problem condoning ritual slaughter like the kind David committed, or any number of slaughterous episodes one can find in the Bible.

It goes without saying that today even the most committed, Bible-laden Christian would not endorse foreskin hunting, and the message has to be continually sent out to all that it is simply past time to put away all antiquated thinking derived from the Bible, and those who refuse to do so should be aggressively challenged in the public square until such time as hating on homosexuals is as unacceptable as cutting off the foreskins of Philistines.

Thankfully, recent polling shows that at least on the gay marriage issue the cultural tide is turning.


The most important civil rights issue of our time is whether gay folks will continue to be treated like freaks.

And now, at last, we have Barack Obama on the side of the angels of liberty, as he declared his evolution complete:

I’ve just concluded that for me personally, it is important for me to go ahead and affirm that I think same-sex couples should be able to get married.

Coming on the heels of the anti-gay vote in North Carolina, I particularly admire—in fact I’m all gushy about it—the President’s admission that his evolving thinking has culminated in an affirmation of complete same-sex rights, which is essentially an affirmation of American constitutional liberty.

Would that he had made such a statement before that horrendous, last-cultural-gasp vote, in North Carolina, so we could see how it might have altered the numbers a bit.

Yet there it was, a historic and courageous statement that many critics didn’t think Mr. Obama would make at this time. Many thought he wouldn’t dare come out for homosexual equality before the election. Too much was at stake. The country isn’t quite ready for it.

But he did it, and “it” is not without political danger.  It will most certainly energize the Iron Age blowhards on the religious right, who will triple their efforts to unseat the homo-loving reprobate in the White’s House.Sign - gay-rights photo

However, no matter what happens this November, even if Barack Obama is burned by the last flickering embers of white religious angst, even if conservative Christians rage against the dying of the white light and muster one final victory on behalf of bigotry, make no mistake about it: homosexuals will one day become—in every state in this union—equal citizens under the law.

And Barack Obama’s decision to fully embrace homosexuals as free and equal citizens has advanced that eventuation.  Not only that, it will have an immediate definite cultural impact: it will, no doubt, exacerbate the cultural piety-anxiety that many white conservative Christians already suffer from, but, more important, it will have a positive effect on the black community, many of whom have resisted the idea that all people—even those compelled by nature to love and desire other folks of the same sex—deserve to be treated as, well, Americans.

Squash ‘Em Like A Cockroach!

Well, read your Bible.  It is right there.”

—Pastor Sean Harris

he Berean Baptist Church in Fayetteville, North Carolina, advises that its “typical service lasts 80 minutes.” In 80 minutes you can be in-and-out, satisfied that you have sang, prayed, and heard the most God-awful sermon you have ever heard.

Unless, of course, you are a typical Bible-thumpin’, King James Version believin’ Republican Christian. In that case, you will have liked what you heard and it will inspire you to vote against The Gay.

Call this 80-minute treatment what it is: McBigotry.

This church—which its website helpfully points out is only “8 minutes from the main gate” of Fort Bragg, named after a Confederate general and boasting of a population of almost 40,000—is the home of Pastor Sean Harris, now infamous for, among other things, urging violence against four-year-old boys who show what the pastor considers signs of homosexuality.

During a sermon extolling the virtues of North Carolina’s Amendment 1, a proposed constitutional alteration that would superfluously ban same-sex marriage (it’s already illegal in the state), Pastor Harris said the following (please, watch the video clip and read the transcript):

So your little son starts to act a little girlish when he is four years old and instead of squashing that like a cockroach and saying, “Man up, son, get that dress off you and get outside and dig a ditch, because that is what boys do,” you get out the camera and you start taking pictures of Johnny acting like a female, and then you upload it to YouTube and everybody laughs about it and the next thing you know, this dude, this kid, is acting out childhood fantasies that should have been squashed! 

Can I make it any clearer? Dads, the second you see your son dropping the limp wrist, you walk over there and crack that wrist! Man up! Give him a good punch, okay? “You’re not gonna act like that. You were made by God to be a male and you are going to be a male.”

And when your daughter starts acting too “Butch,”  you reign her in! And you say, “Oh, no! Oh, no, sweetheart. You can play sports. Play ’em!  Play ’em to the glory of God. But sometimes you are going to act like a girl and walk like a girl and talk like a girl and smell like a girl, and that means you are going to be beautiful, you are going to be attractive, you are going to dress yourself up!”

You say, “Can I take charge like that as a parent?” Yeah, you can. You are authorized. I just gave you a special dispensation this morning to do that. (Laughter)

Now, soak that in. Let it penetrate your mind. This church has a school—a school!— with “over 400 students.” And think about this: Many of  your fellow Americans hold similar views. Many of your neighbors or co-workers or friends or relatives would be among those applauding and laughing, if they were sitting in the stinking pews of the Berean Baptist Church.

Because America is polluted with such bigotry. America is full of Berean Baptist Churches, albeit with other names on the church signs.

Before he got to the permission-to-commit-child-abuse meat of his sermon, Pastor Harris started out with a call to civic responsibility:

So my job this morning, my objective this morning, is to so motivate you that you will make it your priority to register and cast a ballot in the next eight days. And if you have not registered, it is not too late. You can get a voter registration card this morning from Keith Howard in the narthex, fill that out. Take it to an early balloting place and you will be able to cast your vote as long as you do it during early voting. You have to be registered to vote on May 8th. If you are not registered to vote on May 8th, you must vote early. You must vote early, and right now the polling places are virtually empty.

So, it is not too much to ask you to get a card this morning, fill out the appropriate information, and make it your priority between Monday and Friday this week to get to one of the polling locations.

Get it? Before the pastor tells you it’s okay to manhandle your kids in the service of God’s allegedly anti-gay agenda, it is absolutely vital that this Man of God motivate you to get out and cast a vote for virtue!

I said the other day that these folks are sick. I know because I used to be one of them. And the only cure, the only thing that will make the world safe from such Iron Age stupidity, is for the rest of us—me and you—to speak up and confront them.

Some Choice

I have heard a lot of conservatives argue that being gay is a “choice,” sort of like deciding to become an architect or a painter or, well, a gang member.

But as you watch the following video clip, posted originally by the gang members who beat up a homosexual man simply because he was nothing to them but a “faggot,” think about whether the victim, Brandon White, woke up one day in his life and “decided” he wanted to be a homosexual in a culture that produces such lawless, violent, bigoted, creeps as those you will soon see:

Remarks And Asides

Jon Huntsman, for a brief shining moment the only adult in a room full of Republican presidential hopefuls, essentially sealed his doom in the Republican primary by making the following statement about the Evil One, the America-hating Kenyan socialist, Barack Hussein Obama:

He and I have a difference of opinion on how to help the country we both love. But the question each of us wants the voters to answer is who will be the better President; not who’s the better American.

Nice knowing you Jon, even if it were only for a few hours.  Once upon a time, most Republicans were like you.  We will miss your kind.  How about becoming ambassador to, oh, I don’t know, say, China?

                                                                           [Photo by Pool/Getty Images North America]


Speaking of Huntsman, even if his civility toward Obama doesn’t do him in, his expressed tolerance and “respect” for states that have legalized or may legalize gay marriage will.  Again, thanks for the memories, however brief, Jon.


Speaking of “the gay,” former Texas A&M cheerleader and long-time governor of Texas, Rick Perry—who had a one-night-stand with secessionism—will be prepared, should he decide to run for president, to combat old rumors that he is, well,  a Kenyan homosexual.  According to Politico, Perry’s top strategist said:

…unfortunately there are always going to be some people who feel the need to spread false and misleading rumors to advance their own political agenda. 

Noooooooo.  Really? 

I don’t know just how Governor Perry can prove to conservative Republican primary voters that he doesn’t have the gay.  We all know by now that a Certificate of Live Heterosexuality won’t do. 

I guess we’ll just have to “take him at his word,” won’t we, Ms. Bachmann?


Fox “News” and other conservatives got their prayer shawls in a tangle over NBC Sports godlessly excerpting “under God” from the Pledge of Allegiance during its golf telecast.  Now, I for one am comforted to know that conservatives, always eager to embrace policies that would take us back to the good old days, are content to stop at 1954, the year “under God” was wedged into the pledge.

That is progress.


Speaking of Fox, Ann Coulter, who makes a good living from saying dumb and outrageous things that have the virtue of being consumable by gullible conservatives with disposable income, said on Bill O’Reilly’s “show” Tuesday that Afghans are “perfectly happy being poor, ignorant and having a 30-year lifespan.”

That, my friends, passes for high-brow Christian comedy on Fox “News.”

Or, maybe it’s serious commentary.  It’s hard to tell.


Finally, and speaking of high-brow Christian comedy or serious commentary, I found the following on “The Blaze,” a website founded by the caliphate-obsessed, Obama-hating Mormon, Glenn Beck.  By the way, OIL_ROBB‘s comment, complete with misspelling and dumb insult, reads like it was written by a certain Globe blogger I know: 

What Conservatives Believe

Globe blogger Kaje ask me in the comments section yesterday if I had read the platform statement of the Texas Republican Party

Well, sadly, I hadn’t.   But now I have, and it is wonderfully descriptive of the lofty goals of utopian conservative thought and representative of Tea Party Republicanism everywhere.

First, the preamble of this 25-page, 16,174 word document begins:

The embodiment of the conservative dream in America is Texas.

Now, who could argue with that?

Here are some of their can’t-miss principles:

4. We Believe in…The sanctity of human life, created in the image of God, which should be protected from fertilization to natural death.

Since most abortions are nature- or God-induced, Texas Republicans have one hell of a task “protecting” the fertilized egg from the hands of the Almighty, but it is a worthy goal, right?

6. We believe in…Self-sufficient families, founded on the traditional marriage of a natural man and a natural woman.

I’m so glad I’m a self-sufficient “natural” man, even though I’m really not sure what “natural” means. And I”m glad I don’t live in Texas where I just might find out. 

9.  We believe in…A free enterprise society unencumbered by government interference or subsidies.

Let’s talk about this one, after a formerly-unencumbered BP gets that damn hole plugged up.

Other notables from the Cro-Magnon wish list:

 … We further support abolition of federal agencies involved in activities not originally delegated to the federal government under a strict interpretation of the Constitution.

Wait a minute…they stole that one from Southwest Missouri Republican candidates for the 7th District House seat, didn’t they?

We urge our national leadership to protect our Constitutional rights and swiftly wage successful war on terrorists… to reasonably use profiling to protect us…

I’m guessing a “reasonable” use of profiling in Texas would amount to suspecting anyone not wearing a big-ass cowboy hat and dook-stomping boots, while driving a pickup truck with a “Obama Is A Socialist” bumper sticker slapped across the tailgate.

One of the philosophically dumbest declarations in the document is this one:

…we urge Congress to withhold Supreme Court jurisdiction in cases involving abortion, religious freedom, and the Bill of Rights.

Oh, my. They also want to restrict the Court’s jurisdiction to rule on “cases involving family law” and “cases involving sodomy.”  After that’s done, we can get rid of the Supreme Court, since it won’t have enough work to keep it busy.  But beyond that, how can a Constitution-loving political party basically write out of existence the Supreme Court?

Texas Republicans are also concerned about “The Symbols of Our American Heritage,” and, by God, they mean business:

Ten Commandments – We oppose any governmental action to restrict, prohibit, or remove public display of the Decalogue or other religious symbols. 

This, of course, does not apply to Islamic religious symbols or to those Longhorn hood ornaments so popular in certain parts of the Lone Star State. 

But perhaps the most offensive, as opposed to philosophically dumbest, statements in the document are related to homosexuality: 

We believe that the practice of homosexuality tears at the fabric of society, contributes to the breakdown of the family unit, and leads to the spread of dangerous, communicable diseases. Homosexual behavior is contrary to the fundamental, unchanging truths that have been ordained by God… 

We oppose the legalization of sodomy. We demand that Congress exercise its authority granted by the U.S. Constitution to withhold jurisdiction from the federal courts from cases involving sodomy. 

Now, since the breathtakingly detailed Texas GOP platform does not bother to define “sodomy,” I took it upon myself to find out what it could possibly mean.  Here is a definition from Wikipedia

Sodomy (pronounced /ˈsɒdəmi/) is a term used in the law to describe the act of “unnatural”[1] sex, which depending on jurisdiction can consist of oral sex or anal sex or any non-genital to genital congress, whether heterosexual, or homosexual, or with human or animal.

Wow!  I’m betting that many of the Texas Republicans who stand behind (sorry) their platform are serial sodomites, as defined by Wikipedia. 

But more than that, to place the blame on homosexuals for the “breakdown of the family unit,” when Rush Limbaugh and Newt Gingrich have had SEVEN wives between them is, well, more than a little brazen. 

In any case, you get the idea about Texas Republicans and the calcified conservatism sweeping through the national GOP. Their comprehensive platform—which demands fealty from potential candidates—just about covers every facet of life.  

Not only do they hate sodomy and abortion and the Supreme Court, they also want to privatize Social Security and repeal “ObamaCare.”  

They want to exclude from the Americans with Disabilities Act those who have “learning disabilities.” 

They equate the theory of evolution and Intelligent Design. 

They oppose “government-sponsored programs that deal with early childhood development.”

They oppose gambling.

They oppose “sex education other than abstinence until heterosexual marriage.”

They oppose “all laws that infringe on the right to bear arms” and “reject any monitoring of gun ownership,” and they oppose “Gun Free Zones.”

They support state militias and believe County Sheriffs should assist them.

They believe the separation of church and state is a “myth.”

They “resist making Workers’ Compensation mandatory for all Texas employers.”

They want Congress to repeal the Federal Reserve Act of 1913.

They want the government to “clarify” the Fourteen Amendment’s granting of citizenship to anyone born here and limit it to only those born to American citizens—all without recourse to a Constitutional Amendment.

They want the government to take us “back to the moon.”

They support strong relations with Israel, “based on God’s biblical promise to bless those who bless Israel and curse those who curse Israel.”

They want us to pull out of the United Nations.

Oh, yeah.  I almost forgot. They support the Boy Scouts.



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